The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price, began in the late 1980s with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons (of 7,050,000 produced worldwide) were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%.[217][218] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee produces a mixed impact on the communities that grow it. Many studies are skeptical about fair trade, reporting that it often worsens the bargaining power of those who are not part of it. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988, when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".[219]
Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants.[41] The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.[42]
Dishes come in standard sizes, which are set according to the manufacturer. They are similar throughout the industry. Plates are standardised in descending order of diameter size according to function. One standard series is charger (12 inches); dinner plate (10.5 inches); dessert plate (8.5 inches) salad plate (7.5 inches); side plate, tea plate (6.75 inches).

Some very early tables were made and used by the Egyptians, and were little more than stone platforms used to keep objects off the floor. They were not used for seating people. Food and drinks were usually put on large plates deposed on a pedestal for eating. The Egyptians made use of various small tables and elevated playing boards. The Chinese also created very early tables in order to pursue the arts of writing and painting.

Lay out a sleek and chic foundation for your stylish space with this hand-tufted area rug. This design is crafted from stain and fade-resistant polyester in a medium 0.5" pile – perfect for rolling out in the living room or digging your toes into right out of bed in the morning. Available in a curated selection of sizes to outfit your space, this rug works best when paired with a rug pad to prevent shifting and sliding.

A feathery arrangement keeps the vibe of this family room nook cozy, while adding height and drawing the eye up to the artwork by Zipora Fried. The custom sectional is covered in Great Plains and Donghia fabrics, the cocktail table by Daniel Scuderi and the chandelier by Trans-Luxe are both custom, the Ecart International sconces are from Ralph Pucci, the curtains are of a Stark fabric, and the carpet is by Tai Ping; the walls are in a Dualoy leather, the ceiling is painted in Benjamin Moore’s Bison Brown. 

Seating ensemble feeling empty? Try a coffee table! Not only do they anchor your space, but they offer room to stage a display and serve up trays of treats when you find yourself entertaining. This one, for example, is simple and stylish. Its frame is crafted from metal, taking on a circular silhouette and showcasing a dark finish for versatility. The glass top adds a touch of elegance, while providing the perfect perch.
Coffee tables, are arguable the center piece of any seating arrangement. They are omnipresent in all interior designs and aesthetics, and come in an ostensibly countless amount of styles. This rectangular coffee table for example, is perfectly at home in modern or glam aesthetics. It is crafted from stainless steel and tempered glass, and features a bottom shelf to stow away or display magazines and books, or to stow away extra remotes and chargers. It measures 19'' H x 42.25'' L x 24'' W....
A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products, including fair-trade products such as coffee.[222] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee.[222]

Dating to the 1970s, coffee has been incorrectly described by many, including historian Mark Pendergrast, as the world's "second most legally traded commodity".[136][137] Instead, "coffee was the second most valuable commodity exported by developing countries," from 1970 to circa 2000.[138] This fact was derived from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Commodity Yearbooks which show "Third World" commodity exports by value in the period 1970–1998 as being in order of crude oil in first place, coffee in second, followed by sugar, cotton, and others. Coffee continues to be an important commodity export for developing countries, but more recent figures are not readily available due to the shifting and politicized nature of the category "developing country".[136]
Once Glediator is installed we can start playing animations on the table. Firstly we need to set the matrix size to 12 x 12 in the Glediator software and also set the output type to HSBL - Horizontal Snake (starting) Bottom Left as this is the way we have wired up the LEDs and change the colour order to GRB (this is what the LEDs take data in for). On the output tab, open the COM port and the LED matrix should start displaying the LED pattern on the middle screen of the Glediator software.
Yes. The most common size hole for an umbrella table is 2 1/2" at the center, though you’ll need to let us know the exact size you’ll need when you place your order. If the size of the hole you need is different from one of the standard sizes we offer listed below, or in a location other than the center of the table, you’ll need to provide the diameter along with the location in an email or drawing. The cost may be higher for a customized hole. Please keep in mind that we do not offer the plastic cover that goes with such a hole. If you want more than one hole drilled into the same piece of glass, we’ll need to follow specific tempering guidelines.

This step can be easy, or less easy; it all depends on your comfort with a welder and/or desire to make everything by hand. If you don't want to weld the legs yourself, there are plenty of pre-fabricated versions available online, some not much more expensive than it would cost to make them yourself! As I enjoy welding, we decided to make the table legs from scratch.

In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment; Voltaire, Rousseau, and Denis Diderot frequented it, and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie, the first modern encyclopedia.[193] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston, in 1676.[194] Coffee, tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns; one such was the Green Dragon in Boston, where John Adams, James Otis, and Paul Revere planned rebellion.[33]
In 2012, the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study analysed the relationship between coffee drinking and mortality. They found that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of death, and that those who drank any coffee lived longer than those who did not. However the authors noted, "whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data."[146] A 2014 meta-analysis found that coffee consumption (4 cups/day) was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (a 16% lower risk), as well as cardiovascular disease mortality specifically (a 21% lower risk from drinking 3 cups/day), but not with cancer mortality.[147] Additional meta-analysis studies corroborated these findings, showing that higher coffee consumption (2–4 cups per day) was associated with a reduced risk of death by all disease causes.[148][149] An association of coffee drinking with reduced risk for death from various sources was confirmed by a widely cited prospective cohort study of ten European countries in 2017.[150]
I met a flower child friend of friends in the early seventies who worked for a year or two as a call girl in hollywood. One of her gigs was to be naked in a bathtub in the Capitol Record building at a party spraying water on her clitoris and pretending she was getting off to add to the party atmosphere. She said she had Danny Thomas as a client for awhile - he wanted to be called "Danello". His thing was that she was to leave a glass of orange juice on the counter in the kitchen and her door unlocked at a certain time. He would come in and drink the orange juice, then she would come out from another room and "discover" him and be angry as though he was a bad child. The whole routine would end up with him literally kissing her ass on the couch.
When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. During the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants,[31] and a general resolution among many Americans to avoid drinking tea following the 1773 Boston Tea Party.[32] After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew.

Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous, as predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.[65] Instead, integrated pest management has developed, using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks, and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground, which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.[66]
From a slick urban loft to a suburban home that's embraced farmhouse chic, the Sauder Woodworking Studio RTA Nola Coffee Table is going to be the perfect table for any space. This table has a frame of welded metal with a powder-coated finish. Across the top is a single sheet of clear, tempered glass. This thick glass is easy to maintain, making this an ideal surface for regular daily use. The frame is offered in a variety of finish colors to suit any home décor style.
Furniture during the Middle Ages is not as well known as that of earlier or later periods, and most sources show the types used by the nobility. In the Eastern Roman Empire, tables were made of metal or wood, usually with four feet and frequently linked by x-shaped stretchers. Tables for eating were large and often round or semicircular. A combination of a small round table and a lectern seemed very popular as a writing table.[4] In western Europe, the invasions and internecine wars caused most of the knowledge inherited from the classical era to be lost. As a result of the necessary movability, most tables were simple trestle tables, although small round tables made from joinery reappeared during the 15th century and onward. In the Gothic era, the chest became widespread and was often used as a table.

Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,100 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen), where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[208]
The Belham Living Lamont Bunching Coffee Table - Black brings modern design to the forefront of your home's decor. Its steel frame creates a piece that is strong, durable, and perfect for high traffic areas. The beveled tempered glass surface features a cool ice tint which adds an air of elegance you'll love. The black powder-coated finish is never underdressed and complements any color scheme. Use the mirrored lower shelf to display your favorite decorative pieces, books, and curios. Beautiful and versatile, this piece can be used as an end ...

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11 of copies of both parts need to be laser cut out of 3mm plywood and then assemble them to make sure they fit correctly. Once you are happy, take the matrix apart again and spray it white to improve the reflective characteristics of the table. When dry put them back together again and place them over the LEDs. It might be a bit harder to fit them together after spraying as they are now a bit thicker but don't worry just gently tap them into place before you put the matrix into the table.
During all this the weather had turned and I never was able to get a sheet of ¼” ply.  I finally had a chance to trudge out but now I had to stain and finish the bottom separately.  I measured the base and cut the bottom.  After a dry fit, I applied glue and then put it back in but I used small wood screws to hold it in place.  After that it was off to the glass place.  I wanted them to fit the glass in case things had come out of square.  I almost forgot, before leaving for the glass I drilled a small hole in one corner of the bottom where it wasn’t too noticeable. A little stain hid the fresh cut hole.   A small dowel was cut to push through the hole to lift the glass.  After all, the table is for displaying small nick nacks and needs to open easily without breaking off your fingernails or gouging the top with a knife or screwdriver.    
The UK NHS advises that avoiding coffee may reduce anxiety.[156] Caffeine, the major active ingredient in coffee, is associated with anxiety.[157][158] At high doses, typically greater than 300 mg, caffeine can both cause and worsen anxiety.[159] For some people, discontinuing caffeine use can significantly reduce anxiety.[160] Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is a subclass of substance- or medication-induced anxiety disorder.[161] Populations that may be most impacted by caffeine consumption are adolescents and those already suffering anxiety disorders.[162] Preliminary research indicated the possibility of a beneficial relationship between coffee intake and reduced depression.[5][163][164] Long-term preliminary research, including assessment of symptoms for dementia and cognitive impairment, was inconclusive for coffee having an effect in the elderly, mainly due to the poor quality of the studies.[5][165]
Work tables were small tables designed to hold sewing materials and implements, providing a convenient work place for women who sewed. They appeared during the 18th century and were popular throughout the 19th century. Most examples have rectangular tops, sometimes with folding leaves, and usually one or more drawers fitted with partitions. Early examples typically have four legs, often standing on casters, while later examples sometimes have turned columns or other forms of support.
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines.[6] It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared. But the coffee seeds had to be first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as Coffea arabica is thought to have been indigenous to the former.[7] The Yemenis obtained their coffee via Somali traders from Berbera (who in turn procured the beans from the Ethiopian Highlands) and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, the drink had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world.
Now we have all the hardware implemented we can start looking at software. I downloaded and installed software called Glediator to create animations for the LEDs ( The installation instructions can be a bit fiddly but follow the website closely and you should be fine. We also need to download the sketch from the Glediator website to upload to the Arduino ( We are using WS2812B LEDs so make sure you download the right one (WS2812 Glediator Interface). Once you open this sketch, change the NUMBER_OF_PIXELS to 144 and upload it to the Arduino.
Hammary Furniture Company, a division of La-Z-Boy Furniture, is a service-oriented company. In order to offer rapid shipment of orders, we maintain a large inventory of occasional tables, entertainments and accents. Our concept of service is not limited to fast shipment. Our service starts with good communications. We make ourselves easily available by fax, telephone, or mail, and assign a trained customer service representative to each account.
More (adult, nested) lifestyle, in other words, and less commodity: You don’t need to buy everything at West Elm, the store suggests, but it’ll provide you with the background elements (read: items over $750) against which you can build your own personality. It doesn’t matter that everyone who looks and spends like you is doing the same: You’ll still be able to make the look your own, a point driven home by West Elm’s “Share Your Style” function, which encourages customers to tag Instagram posts with #MyWestElm. Those images not only show up on the webpage for each item, but are used, to great success, in West Elm’s social media ads. (The click-through rate on #MyWestElm-content ads was 2.6 times that of normal content, the company told AdWeek, and those clicks ended in a sale three times more often than other click-throughs.)
Now in the serial monitor we can send commands to the HC05 and see its response. Type "AT" and press send and you should see "OK" come back on the serial monitor - now we know it is listening. The bluetooth name of the device can be changed by typing "AT+NAME=XYZPQR" where XYZPQR is what you want the module to be called. I called mine LightWave. The default passcode for the bluetooth module is 1234 (or 0000) but this can be changed too by sending "AT+PSWD=9876" for example. Finally, we can change the communication rate of the HC05 by sending "AT+UART=38400". This is the default rate for most HC05 modules but mine was set differently so it is good practice to set it to be sure. There are lot's more details about these commands here : and there are also instructables about this step that have much more detail
Make a striking statement with this product and live in the elegantly sleek future. Its contemporary style is defined by the polished clear beveled mirror panels that envelope the sides and glittering crystals that embellish the clear glass top interior. Its design is beautifully subtle while still retaining an elegant style. Place this coffee table in your living room and let you and your guests lounge around it-either for a nice cup of coffee after dinner to catch up with old friends or a...
If you have a large comfy sectional or the traditional conversational set up with a sofa and a couple of chairs (kind of like Ginny’s living room above), a square table is a great choice. It fits perfectly in the L-shape nook of your sectional or the big space in the middle of your chat zone. The best part of a square table? You get the most styling space bang for you buck. Who doesn’t love a good styled coffee table vignette? If you’re really into the terrazzo trend that popped up late last year, check out #9 from West Elm. We also really like the mix of the square top and round base of table #1 for a play on shapes. Similar to the shadow box table we talked about in the previous section, #2 from IKEA has a draw with four sections, and the glass top lets you see all the pretty things you decide to store (definitely not the best option if you know you’ll just end up junking up that drawer with remotes and catalogs, though). 
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Give your outdoor arrangement a boost of light as you add a splash of contemporary style with this one-light wall sconce, rated for wet locations. This design is crafted from steel and lead wire, and it features a rectangular backplate and a cylindrical metal shade that projects its single light downwards. This luminary accommodates a 100W incandescent bulb (not included), and the manufacturer provides a one-year warranty on this product.
Center your seating arrangement around a sleek and sophisticated style with this elegant coffee table. A perfect pick for modern aesthetics, it showcases two green tint glass table tops with elegant curving sides for ample display space. Below the tabletops is a frosted glass oval shelf, perfect for stowing away glossy magazines and setting out sculptural accents. This table is supported by four smooth, chromed legs, and it has a weight capacity of 100 pounds.